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                        明朝滅元之戰:徐達北伐

                        發布時間:2017-12-06  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

                          徐達北伐,是明朝滅元之戰的一個戰略決策和戰爭經過基本吻合的典型戰例,顯示了徐達卓越的用兵才能和駕馭戰爭的能力。

                          徐達審時度勢,知己知彼,料敵先機,用兵如神,是此戰獲勝的重要因素。當年忽必烈令伯顏率軍20萬滅亡南宋,僅過百年,朱元璋令徐達將其逐回大漠,也是率軍20萬,不知是不是歷史的巧合。此次戰爭的勝利,推翻了元朝的統治,確立了明朝對全中國的統治。此役更是打破了歷史上由北向南統一的公式,可謂千古奇功。

                          戰爭背景

                          元至正二十七年(1367年)十月至明洪武二年(1369年)十二月,明軍與元軍在中原和西北廣大區域內進行的戰略決戰。

                          明太祖朱元璋于元至正十二年(1352年)起兵,自十六年(1356年)攻克集慶(今南京),爾后即吳王位,建百官,初步建立江南政權以后,先后消滅了占領湖廣、江西等地的陳友諒、占據江浙一帶的張士誠和浙東的方國珍,為北上滅元創造了有利條件。對于北上作戰的戰略部署和進軍路線,朱元璋作了審慎的籌劃。他首先征求諸將的意見。平章常遇春提出長驅直入,直搗元朝大都(今北京)的主張。朱元璋不同意這個輕敵冒進的方案。他根據當時元朝在中原、西北的兵力部署以及各部之間的關系和各部內部的政治傾向、軍事實力,認為元建都百年,城守必固,若懸師深入,不能即破,頓于堅城之下,糧餉不繼,援兵四集,進不得戰,退無所據,必然陷入被動之中。為此,他提出穩扎穩打,漸次推進的北伐戰略:“先取山東,撤其屏蔽;旋師河南,斷其羽翼;拔潼關而守之,據其戶檻,天下形勢,入我掌握,然后進兵元都,則彼勢孤援絕,不戰可克。既克其都,鼓行而西,云中、九原以及關隴可席卷而下。”

                          攻取河南、山東(明攻山東之戰明攻河南之戰)

                          朱元璋根據這一戰略構想,將整個戰略行動分為三個階段加以實施。第一階段,首先攻取山東,繼而轉攻河南,占據潼關;第二階段,攻取河北及元朝大都,消滅元朝;第三階段,主力由大都南下攻取山西,略定陜甘,完成北方之統一。北伐戰爭基本上是按照這一戰略實施的。

                          元至正二十七年(1367年)十月二十一日,命丞相徐達為征虜大將軍,平章常遇春為副將軍,率軍25萬人由淮河入河南,北伐中原。為減少北伐阻力,爭取人民擁護,出兵之前,朱元璋特別告誡將士,師到之處,切勿殺掠。并向北方人民發布檄文,提出“驅逐胡虜,恢復中華”的口號,對漢族各階層人民產生了一定的號召力,所以北伐比較順利。為了保障北伐,令留守江淮之部隊加強戒備,以防元軍襲擊。

                          從至正二十七年十月明軍主力由江淮北上,至洪武元年二月,僅用四個多月的時間就攻下山東。山東的攻克,使元廷失去了左臂,在戰略上為北伐造成了更為有利的軍事態勢。三月,徐達揮軍西向,分兵兩路進攻河南。一路自濟寧溯黃河而上,進攻汴梁(今開封);一路由河南永城、歸德攻許州(今許昌)。同時命征南將軍鄧愈率襄陽、安陸、景陵等處兵馬北攻南陽,策應北征主力作戰。明軍所向披靡,在很短的時間里相繼攻克汴梁、洛陽以及嵩(今嵩縣)、陜(今陜縣)、陳(今淮陽)、汝(今臨汝)諸州,并不戰而據有潼關,基本上完成了北伐第一階段的戰略任務。

                          攻取河北(明攻河北、大都之戰)

                          元朝大都之屏蔽已撤,外援隔絕,陷入了明軍的弧形包圍圈中。五月,朱元璋親抵汴梁,聽取前線將領的軍事情況匯報,并討論了下一階段的戰略步驟。

                          洪武元年(1368年)六月初,徐達令河南各軍向河陰(今武陟西南)集結,各衛糧船由濟寧起航,保障后勤供應。七月二十九日,他又遵朱元璋之命,令都督同知張興祖、平章韓政、都督副使孫興祖、指揮高顯等率益都、徐州、濟寧之師集結于東昌,等待與河南諸軍會師北進。

                          根據當時元廷已陷入孤立無援的軍事形勢,徐達提出由臨清(今屬山東)直搗大都的主張,朱元璋表示同意。遂決定由征虜右副將軍馮勝守汴梁,江西行省左丞何文輝守河南(今洛陽),鎮國將軍郭興等人鎮守潼關,徐達率大軍直取大都。

                          攻占大都

                          閏七月初一日,明軍主力自中灤(今封丘西南)渡黃河,沿御河(今衛河),經臨清、長蘆(今河北景縣)、通州(今北京通縣),向北挺進。

                          閏七月初二日,明軍出師汴梁(今河南開封),一路勢如破竹,連克衛輝(今河南汲縣)、彰德(今河南安陽)、磁州(今河北磁縣)、邯鄲、廣平(今均屬河北)。閏七月十一日至臨清(今屬山東),遂令集結于東昌之師來會,且令參政傅友德開通陸路,都督副使顧時開通河道,于閏七月十五日水陸兩路并進。師至德州,會征虜副將軍常遇春、張興祖、高顯、毛驤、程華等師北進。

                          洪武元年(1368年)閏七月二十日下長蘆(今河北滄州)、青州(今河北青縣及天津靜海等地),二十三日至直沽(今天津),二十五日敗元軍于河西務(今天津市武清東北)。一路勢如破竹,銳不可當,直逼大都城下。

                          元順帝見大勢已去,遂于二十八日夜三鼓攜太子、后妃出建德門,由居庸關逃往上都開平(今內蒙古多倫西北)。八月二日,徐達率軍進占大都,至齊化門,令將士填壕登城而入。徐達本人親自登上齊化門樓,殺死元朝監國宗室淮王帖木兒不花和右丞相張康伯等人,并俘諸王子六人,封存府庫圖籍寶物以及故宮殿門,令兵守衛。命令士卒不得侵暴搶掠,居民各安其業。同時遣將巡邏古北諸處關口,又命指揮華云龍經理大都,新筑城垣。

                          攻克大都之后,北方之山東、河南、河北等地盡入明軍之手,尤其是元主北逃,使整個北伐戰場發生了根本性變化,困據秦晉的元地主武裝集團,完全陷入了群龍無首的境地。朱元璋得到徐達大軍攻下大都的消息以后,不失時機地命其轉入下一個戰略階段。

                          攻取山西(明攻山西之戰)

                          洪武元年(1368年)八月十五日,朱元璋命都督副使孫興祖、都督僉事華云龍留守北平府(今北京),徐達、常遇春揮師西向,攻取山西。同時,命馮勝、偏將軍湯和由河南渡河北向,以策應攻晉主力。經過近五個月的艱苦作戰,明軍于洪武二年(1369年)正月攻克大同,進而平定山西。這時盤據在陜甘方面的尚有李思齊、張思道等十余萬人。徐達平定山西以后,迅即轉攻陜甘,以求徹底完成此次北伐戰略任務。自二月徐達派常遇春、馮勝渡河趨陜,至十二月明軍擊潰擴廓帖木兒反攻蘭州之軍,歷時十個月。明軍相繼攻克奉元路(明改為西安府,即今陜西西安)、鳳翔、蘭州、臨洮、慶陽等重鎮,基本上消滅了這一地區元軍之勢力。至此,朱元璋北伐滅元之戰宣告結束,基本上實現了戰前擬定的戰略計劃。

                          此時北元尚有軍隊數十萬,分據上都、秦隴、云南、遼東,四川亦尚有明升之夏政權。十二月,徐達分兵三路克太原、大同、宣府(今河北宣化)等地,迫元將擴廓帖木兒敗逃甘肅,山西歸明。

                          統一西北(明攻取慶陽之戰明攻取甘陜之戰)

                          這時盤據在陜甘方面的尚有李思齊、張思道等l0余萬人。徐達平定山西以后,迅即轉攻陜甘,以求徹底完成此次北伐戰略任務。

                          洪武二年(1369年)三月,明軍入陜西,克西安、鳳翔,迫元將李思齊率部十萬奔臨洮(今屬甘肅)。朱元璋致書招降,右副將軍馮勝往攻,李思齊出降。五月,徐達乘勝取平涼、延安。北元主力擴廓帖木兒部精銳,被殲于蘭州(今屬甘肅)東。六月,常遇春回師北平(今北京),進克上都,元順帝北逃應昌(蒙古鄂爾渾河上游東岸哈爾和林)。八月,徐達克慶陽,斬元將張良臣,占陜西。

                          洪武二年(1369年),北元兵襲擾原州、涇州、大同等地,皆被明軍擊退。

                          洪武三年(1370年),元順帝駕崩,皇太子愛猷識理達臘襲位,改元宣光。朱元璋以擴廓帖木兒屢擾西北,命徐達為征虜大將軍,李文忠、馮勝、鄧愈、湯和為副將軍,分路出擊,先后克定西(今屬甘肅)、興和(今河北張北)、應昌等地,大敗擴廓所部,俘元郯王及平章以下將士8.6萬余人,元嗣君愛猷識理達臘北走。鄧愈率部自臨洮進克河州(今甘肅臨夏東北),安撫吐蕃,于是河州以西,朵甘、烏斯藏諸部歸附明朝。

                          至此,朱元璋北伐滅元之戰宣告結束,從根本上推翻了元朝的統治,基本上實現了戰前擬定的戰略計劃。使殘存在各地的元軍陷入群龍無首的境地,為朱元璋最終統一中國,奪取了戰略上的絕對優勢。

                        上一篇:北宋統一戰爭 下一篇:明攻山東之戰
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