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                        悠悠千古事是中國歷史網,主要收集和分享中國歷史人物故事、歷史名人、歷史故事等。

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                        當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 戰史風云 > 長平之戰:胡服騎射與商鞅變法的較量

                        長平之戰:胡服騎射與商鞅變法的較量

                        發布時間:2017-11-17  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

                          公元前260一場決定中國歷史走向及秦趙兩國命運的大決戰在長平打響了,除了秦趙士兵在嘶殺,另一場決戰也在打響,那就是“胡服騎射”與“商鞅變法”的決戰。這是一場兩股改革力量經過多年變革后看誰才是真正的時代變革者,誰才是真正的變革強者的時代大較量。在長達兩年之久的角逐中,最終以“商鞅變法”完勝而告終,從此戰國時期的強大趙國淪為弱國,再無翻身的余地。

                          歷史背景:戰國中期,各諸候國相繼變法改革,最早的變法改革始于魏國的魏文候起,魏文候在戰國七雄中首先實行變法,改革政治,獎勵耕戰,興修水利,發展封建經濟,他用李悝、翟璜為相,改革弊政;用樂羊、吳起為將,使魏國最先強盛起來稱雄于諸候的國家。

                          之后列國相繼推行變法,楚、韓、齊、趙、秦,在戰國兩百年間,各國在變革必較量,從某種意義上來說,戰國兩百年,其實就星改革變法之爭,“誰的改革模式是最好的?”這兩百年來諸候國通過用戰爭來證明。選進戰勝落后,適應戰勝不適應,成為各國改革變法的試金石。

                          趙武靈王在位的時候,趙國相對有過變法改革的各諸候國來說,處于衰落的地位。胸有大志的趙武靈王對胡人騎兵的優越性有切身認識,他認為以胡服騎射改革軍隊是強兵的途徑。

                          在改革中,發布“胡服騎射”的政令,根據胡人的服裝改穿短裝,用帶鉤,穿皮靴,不僅要軍隊將士改穿,還要全國臣民都改穿。號令全國把把袖子改窄,習騎射,帶頭穿著胡服去會見群臣,讓將士學胡人騎馬射箭,訓練軍隊。

                          實行胡服騎射前,趙國屢敗于齊、秦、魏等國,不得不忍辱割地,甚至周邊的胡人也連年向趙國發掠奪,趙國幾手沒還手之力。實行胡服騎射之后,趙國在短短的時間內就建立起了一支以騎兵為主體的強悍軍隊,在后來的戰爭中顯示出了強大威力。趙武靈王二十一年(公元前350年)趙軍兵分三路進攻中山國,奪取中山國的丹丘、華陽、鴟之塞、石邑丶等地,中山國軍望風而逃,中山王迫于無奈獻四個城邑請和。往后的時間里,從趙武靈王二十三年到趙惠王三年期間憑著強大的趙軍滅掉了中山國還向北方出擊匈奴,“攘地北至燕、代。”向西邊的林胡、樓煩繼續用兵直達云中、九原(包頭市),經過“胡服騎射”軍事改革的趙國終于成為當時軍力最強的國家。

                          趙武靈王的“胡服騎射”在軍事領域的改革成效是立竿見影的,他在最短時間內“頭疼治頭,腳疼治腳”扭轉了趙國處處被動挨打的局面,解決了趙國周邊的國家安全危機的同時也拓土開疆千里。雖然趙國的變革有成效,但比起當時的諸候國來說,卻東邊不如齊國富饒,西邊不如秦國變法深刻。

                          相比秦國商鞅變法,則與趙國“頭疼治頭,腳疼治腳”的純軍事領域的變革大為不同。商鞅變法抓住了富國強兵的根本就是人力物力財力,他通過夜革廢除了與當時不適應的春秋舊制度,創立了適應社會經濟發展的新制度,推動了秦國社會進步促進了經濟發展真正實現了富國強兵。

                          從兩者對比來看,趙國“胡服騎射”改革時間短,見效快;而秦國“商鞅變法”則歷時長則見效慢。在歷經秦孝公時期困難艱阻重重二十年才初見成效,然而仍是個框架還沒俱備實質性的進展,后經秦惠文王二十年的奮斗通過謀東出與各國展開邦交拉鋸,平定義渠攻占巴蜀后的一系列努力才使商鞅變化在秦國的富國強兵道路上名符其實。www.sjzsimeng.com其中最重大的舉措就是攻占巴蜀,它不光是秦國往后統一強大國力來源的戰略支撐,也是秦國軍事領域“得蜀便得楚,得楚天下并”的戰略制高點。

                          秦人之所以在列國紛爭中久戰、力戰,除了商鞅變法后秦國“耕戰策”磁鐵般的吸人政策以外,就是巴蜀能為秦國連年征戰提供了源源不斷的物資保障。它的開拓經營是自關中糧倉后的第二大戰略物資保障倉庫。另外,是人口的爆增,商鞅變法后各國大量的民眾“耕戰策”的中不論身份貴賤論功評爵的強大吸引力紛紛從善如流的涌入秦國,使得秦國在短時閃國內人口數量遠超過列國。這就為秦國連年征戰提供了人口保障。

                          戰爭是政治的廷續,沒有純戰爭的戰爭,它拼的是國力。長平之戰是秦趙兩國舉國國力的角逐。它不光吞噬了參戰士兵的生命,也吞噬了兩國的綜合國力。在長達兩年的相互消耗中,兩國的國力在空前消耗。然趙國雖然在軍力上強大,但國力支撐軍力的致命傷在這次持久的消耗大戰中越發突出,以至致命。秦國在長平之戰后,還能以強大的國力繼續在一統的路上征戰,根本原因是國力強大,通俗的說是“錢多,人多”,反觀趙國,四十萬將士埋葬長平后,簡直是“要人沒人,要錢沒錢”的窮國,以致后來十數年的“喘息”也不能恢復過來。

                          胡服騎射與商鞅變法在長平的碰撞是歷時兩百年的列國改革與變法最后一次大碰撞,在那個偉大的時代,商鞅變法以勝利者的姿態將深刻變革的秦帝國慢慢地推向了統一。

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