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                        悠悠千古事 | 我要投稿

                        當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 戰史風云 > 涿鹿之戰的戰爭地點:涿鹿古戰場

                        涿鹿之戰的戰爭地點:涿鹿古戰場

                        發布時間:2016-08-30  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

                          涿鹿古戰場記錄了距今4600年前華夏氏族與東夷氏族的一次決戰,——涿鹿之戰,這也是中國史上記載的最早的戰場。

                          隨著華夏氏族與東夷氏族之間的沖突日益激烈,黃帝與蚩尤決戰于此,最終以蚩尤的失敗收場,從而奠定了黃帝軒轅氏成為中國人文始祖的最后地位。

                          歷史背景

                          今河北涿鹿附近,中國史上記載的最早的戰場,黃帝與蚩尤決戰于此,以蚩尤的失敗收場,奠定了黃帝軒轅氏成為中國人文始祖的最后地位。

                          這是距今46OO年前華夏氏族與東夷氏族的一次決戰,這次戰爭都是傾兩大部族的全力,是中國有史以來最早最有名的一次決戰,這次戰爭以后,戰爭的勝利者黃帝從此成為中華民族的共同祖先,并被逐步神化。

                          當時的華夏氏族興起于今關中平原、山西西南部和河南西部。經融合后,遂沿著黃河南北岸向今華北大平原西部地帶發展。而東夷氏族興起于黃河下游的今冀、魯、豫、蘇、皖交界地區,以今山東為根據地,由東向西方發展,開始進入華北大平原。這樣華夏氏族與東夷氏族之間的沖突也就不可避免了。涿鹿之戰正是在這種歷史背景下爆發的一次總決戰。

                          戰爭過程

                          東夷蚩尤部落進入華北平原,聯合巨人夸父部族和三苗一部,擊敗了炎帝族,并進而占據了炎帝族居住的“九隅”,即“九州”。后集結了所屬的81個支族(一說72族),向黃帝族發起攻擊。黃帝族則率領以熊、羆、狼、豹、雕、龍、鸮等為圖騰的氏族,迎戰蚩尤部,并在上游筑壩蓄水以阻蚩尤。

                          戰爭初期,適逢濃霧和大風暴雨天氣,這很適合來自東方多雨環境的蚩尤族。所以在初戰階段,適合于晴天氣環境作戰的黃帝族處境并不有利,曾經九戰而九敗。然而,不多久,雨季過去,天氣放晴,黃帝族把握戰機,在玄女族的支援下,乘勢向蚩尤族發動反擊。其利用特殊有利的天候——狂風大作,塵沙漫天,吹號角,擊鼙鼓,乘蚩尤族部眾迷亂、震懾之際,以指南車指示方向,驅眾向蚩尤族進攻,終于一舉擊敗敵人,并在冀州之野(即冀州,今河北地區)擒殺其首領蚩尤。涿鹿之戰就這樣以黃帝族的勝利而宣告結束。戰后,黃帝族乘勝東進,一直進抵泰山附近,在那里舉行“封泰山”儀式后方才凱旋西歸。這就是炎黃戰蚩尤的故事。

                          關于涿鹿

                          涿鹿,太行山余脈與燕山余脈群山環抱,桑干河從這塊盆地由東向西流過。在這片古老的土地,歷史上有許多史學家躬親山水,又青燈黃卷從浩繁的史籍中尋找中華始祖的遠古蹤跡。從早期的《逸周書》到《黃帝四經》,從西漢太史公司馬遷親自“北過涿鹿”而著述《史記》,北魏地理學家酈道元采寫《水經注》,到清代保安知州楊桂森撰寫《礬山考古記》,史學家們考察后認為:涿鹿是中華民族文明重要的起源地之一。

                          針對現代文化學術界“涿鹿究竟在今何處”的地望爭論,上世紀90年代,中國先秦史學會、中華炎黃文化研究會、河北省社科院、河北省張家口市人民政府等單位,會聚海峽兩岸的著名專家學者,在河北省涿鹿縣礬山鎮兩度舉行三祖文化學術研討。考古學家、史學家們實地考察了涿鹿縣境內的黃帝城、阪泉、蚩尤城、蚩尤泉、北魏祭黃帝的溫泉行宮等古文化遺址,并鑒賞了黃帝城出土的仰韶文化②彩陶、龍山文化③籃紋灰陶,以及龍山時期扁平穿孔磨光石鉞等禮器。經過論證論辯,得出真實的歷史結論:

                          其一,涿鹿地望從《史記》確認直至今天,“冀州涿鹿”概指今河北省涿鹿縣。曾發生在此地的“阪泉之戰”、“涿鹿之戰”是為信史。

                          其二,炎帝、黃帝、蚩尤在涿鹿兵爭、會盟和融合,中華民族從此開始步入文明時代。

                          其三,“涿鹿之戰”后,黃帝被推舉為天下共主,但黃帝、炎帝、蚩尤是中華民族共同的人文始祖。上述學術結論得到我國苗族、彝族、壯族等少數民族的承認。

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