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                        當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 戰史風云 > 為什么春秋時期的戰爭不滅國,到了戰國就變化了呢?

                        為什么春秋時期的戰爭不滅國,到了戰國就變化了呢?

                        發布時間:2018-07-07  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

                          自周平王東遷洛邑后,春秋戰國的歷史得以開啟。對于春秋和戰國這兩個歷史階段,不僅體現在諸侯國數量上的不同,更在于戰爭性質上的不同。就春秋時期來說,大部分戰爭不是以滅國為宗旨,以齊桓公等春秋五霸來說,戰爭的目的主要是稱霸諸侯。而到了戰國時期,戰爭目的就是為了占領土地和人口,乃至于秦始皇時期的統一戰爭。那么,為什么兩個階段的戰爭呈現出不一樣的特征呢?

                          

                        為什么春秋時期的戰爭不滅國,到了戰國就變化了呢?

                         

                          首先,在中國古代歷史上,根據戰爭的政治目的,可以將其分為有限戰爭和無限戰爭。在春秋時期,貴族是各國軍隊的主要構成,每次戰爭的交戰數量大多在幾千人,時間不過幾日。由此,戰爭的目的主要不是消滅敵人,而是削弱和消耗敵人。但是,到了戰國時期,由于征兵制度的形成,戰爭具有了總體性。以當時商鞅變法后的秦國為例,戰爭與平民之間的沖突消失,進入到戰時全民皆兵的狀態。

                          在戰國時期,因為大量的平民取代貴族成為軍隊的主力,促使戰爭的成本下降了。于是,春秋時期的盡量避免戰爭,發展到戰國時期就變成主動求戰。再加上殺敵才能升官等制度上激烈,各個國家都在內部形成了占領和滅亡其他國家的動力。

                          

                        為什么春秋時期的戰爭不滅國,到了戰國就變化了呢?

                         

                          當然,決定春秋時期戰爭注重禮儀的根本,還在于當時的生產力不夠先進。在春秋末期到戰國時期的過渡階段,鐵器的運用成為一個重要的分界線。在春秋時期,不管生產材料還是武器材料的青銅,其在產量上比較稀缺。如果要進行戰爭的話,只要能打敗對方國家的軍隊,將敵國的青銅武器盡數收繳,就可以讓對方很長時間內都無法再發動一場戰爭。比如晉楚爭霸的過程中,往往一場戰爭就決定幾年內的兩國形勢。所以,勝利方也就沒有必要去強行占領或者消滅戰敗國。

                          

                        為什么春秋時期的戰爭不滅國,到了戰國就變化了呢?

                         

                          再者,正是由于春秋時期的生產力不夠先進,各個國家可以投入到戰爭中的人員相對較少。換而言之,大部分人員主要在農業生產上。這個時期的春秋戰爭,戰勝一方只需要消滅對方的軍隊就可以了,沒有必要大范圍殺傷對方的非戰爭人員。而且,正是因為生產力上的限制,導致戰勝國也無法有效管轄那么多的土地和人口,促使滅國也得不到多大的好處。

                          到了戰國時期,隨著冶鐵技術的應用普及,各種鐵器農具直接推動著生產力的大幅提升。假設過去五個人種一塊地,現在只需要一個人就可以,那么剩下的四個人就可以轉化為士兵,甚至是全職士兵。同時,相對于青銅武器的制造速度,鐵制武器可以迅速、大規模的生產,為多出來的士兵武裝一番。于是,為了防止戰敗國的報復也罷,擴張本國的農業耕地也好,占領和滅國成為戰國時期的主流。比如在長平之戰中,盡管趙國戰敗,但是白起還要坑殺四十萬趙國士兵,為的就是避免趙國日后的反撲。

                          

                        為什么春秋時期的戰爭不滅國,到了戰國就變化了呢?

                         

                          總的來說,春秋時期的戰爭還沒有你死我活的壓力,晉國和楚國打了幾百年,結果也沒有誰滅了誰。當然,值得注意的是,春秋戰爭的不滅國原則,主要還是在大國之間。諸多不知名的小國,還是被楚國等大國給兼并。不然,春秋初期的幾百個國家,也不會一到了戰國時期就余下十幾個大國了。

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