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                        牧野之戰真的慘烈到血流漂杵嗎?

                        發布時間:2018-07-03  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

                        null

                        商朝末年,紂王暴虐,武王起兵伐紂。在牧野兩軍展開激戰。激烈到什么程度?《尚書·武成》僅以“血流漂杵”一筆帶過。連武器都被血浮起來了,貌似戰況不能用一個慘字來形容。事實真的如此嗎?

                        牧野之戰圖

                        牧野之戰圖

                        首先,“杵”是什么?其實就是木頭棒子。商周時期,青銅業雖然有了長足的進步,但一直到商朝末期,青銅都是十分珍貴的,一般都是作為祭祀用的禮器。普通的士兵是不可能裝備青銅兵器的。但是在《尚書稗疏》中,王夫之就質疑,血濺而漂之,如風吹雨之所漂,及先儒謂漂浮而動之說太不經,雖億萬人之血亦必散灑于億萬人所仆之地,安能成渠而浮物耶?”意思就是說即使億萬人的鮮血一起留到地上也不可能讓木棒飄起來。

                        牧野之戰圖

                        牧野之戰圖

                        然而如果不是在鮮血里就有可能了,或者說不是在純血液里。《呂氏春秋》中記載,天雨,日夜不休。武王疾行不輟。軍師皆諫,曰:卒病,請休之。武王曰:“……吾疾行,以救膠鬲之死也。武王果以甲子至殷郊。”《韓詩外傳卷三》中記載,武王伐紂,到于邢丘,楯(亦書軛)折為三,天雨三日不休。《荀子》《淮南子》《史記》中也有類似記載,那就是大戰的那幾天已經下了幾天的暴雨。

                        而且據史學家考證,雙方大戰之地有一條河流作為武王軍隊的側翼屏障。這條河流位于太行山東麓,是古黃河的重要支流之一。

                        到此可知,雙方的武器木頭棒子,戰場旁還有一條因為暴雨而水流暴漲的河流。所以當時的真實戰況應該是,商周雙方軍隊在戰場上相互廝殺,士兵的鮮血和雨水混成一片流進了河水中。整條河水都被鮮血染紅,士兵的武器“杵”就在河水中飄著。看來這場牧野之戰中出現的“血流漂杵”只是在特定的天氣、地點、條件下出現的特殊現象。

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