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                        古代的江洋大盜都是怎么來的?

                        發布時間:2017-07-25  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

                          “江湖”一詞原本泛指三江五湖,尤指長江與洞庭湖,而俗稱“黑道”的江湖,大概形成于兩宋社會。指代自然環境的“江湖”演變出后者的意思,恐怕并非偶然。那些具有反叛性的游民,不論出于自保還是求生,開始自發組織力量對抗國家秩序,從而營造出一個游離于王朝管理體制之外的江湖社會。然而,這個具有文化象征意義的“江湖”,其形成與自然地理上的江湖頗有關系。顧炎武說:“濱江則有江盜,濱湖則有湖盜”。呂思勉先生也注意到“古之為盜者,率多保據山澤”(《呂思勉讀史札記》),陳涉起于大澤;桓楚亡命澤中;黥布號稱鄱盜;彭越常漁于巨野;劉邦身匿芒碭山澤間;陳友諒乃沔陽漁家之子;歷史斑斑可鑒,所謂“江湖”、“江洋大盜”諸詞,估計都派生于此類水上“盜匪”。地理的江湖造就好漢們的江湖,最快意的莫過于水泊聚義的梁山好漢。梁山泊不僅成就了英雄,也成就了流傳后世的《水滸傳》。

                          梁山泊之外,洞庭湖、鄱陽湖、太湖均號稱東南巨浸。洞庭湖地處長江中游兩湖之間,其水域于宋元明清時期最為遼闊,“江陵而下,地與澤半”,襟江帶湖,素稱澤國。明人王士性《廣志繹》載:“洞庭水漲,延袤八百里,盜賊竊發。”顧炎武《天下郡國利病書》載:“漢沔之間,湖泊遼曠,萑葦茂密,盜賊竄匿之區也。嘉靖間,漢川風門河一帶上下數十百里,群盜出沒,劫殺商船。荊門州治四維,湖山相半,如沙洋等處,素稱盜賊淵藪。”

                          洞庭湖區內影響最大的盜匪活動,莫過于發生于南宋的鐘相、楊幺起義。建炎四年(1130),鐘相自稱楚王,率眾起事,憑據洞庭湖深廣險阻的地理優勢,以宗教活動相聯絡,倡議“等貴賤、均貧富”,波及環湖地區十九州縣。鐘相死后,楊幺繼起,利用洞庭湖港汊交錯的地形大建水寨,一度達到七十余座。另又制作大型車船無數,多次重挫官軍,包括著名的石牌大捷。《水滸傳》有詩云:“蓼兒洼內,前后擺數千支戰艦艨艟;水滸寨中,左右列百十個英雄好漢。”似乎就是楊幺水軍利用水寨、車船進行水上作戰的真實寫照。不論楊幺起義與《水滸傳》是否有淵源,僅就形式而言,兩者相似之處頗多:皆憑依八百里曠渺煙波,“陸攻則入湖,水攻則登岸”,隊伍的機動性和靈活性大大提高,形成一種獨特的水泊嘯聚的游擊模式。

                          古代的鄱陽湖也是一個盜賊集聚之地。鄱陽湖地處九江沖積扇以南,湖口以下如同一個巨大的水囊,吊掛在江西三面環山的平原區域。其變遷與洞庭湖相類似,秦漢時期雖非大澤,但也是水網密布的湖沼景觀。秦亡之際,黥布與驪山之徒聚集于九江水域(很可能是江北的彭蠡澤),號稱“鄱盜”。唐宋以后,湖區漸大,盜匪為患愈烈。章潢《圖書編總論》云:“鄱陽匯合三江,波濤彌漫,盜賊舸艦率以為歸,遂為豫章諸郡之患。”

                          《莊子·大宗師》:“泉涸,魚相與處于陸,相呴以濕,相濡以沫,不如相忘于江湖。”這句充滿意境的話用在這里似乎不大合適,但盜匪與江湖確實是“相濡以沫”的關系。根據王日根等人的研究,江湖盜匪主要有四種來源:以水為生活場域的漁船戶、江河沿岸的居民、沿河地區的捕役和汛兵、漕戶鹽丁以及各類窩主,又大致分為半職業和職業型盜匪。職業盜匪畢竟數量有限,反而是兼備漁戶與盜匪雙重身份的現象大量存在。雍正六年(1728),湖廣總督邁柱曾上疏言明江夏縣一帶水上盜匪之情形:查楚省江河渡駁、江劃小船與茅蓬船只,此等船戶皆窮苦無賴之徒,或系沿江、沿湖附近村莊,或系四處混聚,未知來歷,亦無牙埠約束。黃昏深夜,巧以捕魚為名,乘空即將過客行舟逞志截劫。塘汛地方因其捕魚,不便拿緝。甚有竊劫鄉村,盜已獲而無窩家,借船以為巢穴。如臣屬江夏縣之八吉堡,地方素稱盜藪,其故皆由附近村莊,多以捕魚為業,家設劃船茅蓬,借名為匪,礙難查緝。

                          舊有諺語云:“十個船家九個偷”,他們亦民亦賊,“晝則在港捕魚,夜則出港行劫”,或者見財起意,利用熟練的水性和獨特的地理環境伺機作案。這種說法似乎有行業歧視之嫌,但或許可以窺見個中情實。只有不道德的社會,沒有不道德的人。一個游離在王朝管理體制之外的江湖社會,自有其江湖內部的秩序在發揮作用,漁戶置身其間,自受江湖法則所支配,亦無常理可講。這或許就是“人在江湖,生不由己”的道理。

                          盜匪之所以樂于選擇江河湖澤落腳,這與江湖水環境的復雜性關系莫大。湖面遼闊,四通八達,港汊交錯,沙洲縱橫,蘆葦叢生,江、湖、山、嶼、洲、蕩等多種地理景觀往往勾連環結,構成一個水網密集的澤藪景觀結構。加之天有陰晴,潮有漲落,灘涂暗礁之分布各有規律,只有久據水域者方可把握,對于官府和行商富賈而言,處江湖之遠還真是一個大陷阱。江湖盜匪利用如此得天獨厚的地理條件,往往“駕舟揚帆,飄逸無常,溪港錯雜,奔逸難定”。楊國安曾總結出江湖盜匪具有流動性、隱蔽性和分散性的特征(楊國安《國家權力與民間秩序:多元視野下的明清兩湖鄉村社會史研究》),其藉江湖之險,進退可據,鋌而搏命,與官府之間如同貓鼠游戲,深得游擊戰精髓。

                          江湖多處發散型的水陸交通網絡之上,交通便利、物資供應充足則是造成“江湖多劇盜”的另一個重要原因。自唐宋之際經濟重心轉移東南,鹽、糧乃國之重利,東南系王朝財賦之命,以漕運水系相維系構成財富網絡。東南財賦與漕運,恐怕就是宋以后長江下游、運河、湖泊盜匪充斥的重要背景。盜匪視江河湖澤為利藪,除了豐富的漁產和農業富庶之外,與運河相維系的鹽、糧等大宗貨物商品也是盜匪們垂涎的目標。內地封閉型的高原湖泊,自古甚少有嚴重的湖匪之患,恐怕就在于不具備豐厚利源和便利交通使然。

                          當然,很多學者也認為:歷史時期人口增加,土地流失,大量流徙之民涌入江湖之間,不得已棄耒耜而亡命于湖澤,淪為盜賊。生計之艱難,加之大型水域向來是官府管理的薄弱環節,導致江湖之區成為魚龍混雜、良莠難辨的場所。這自然也是江湖多盜的更宏大的社會背景,但這個原因似乎過于宏大了,幾乎是各種盜賊滋生的共選答案。因此,在水言水,造就“江湖”的江湖,那個與盜匪們“相濡以沫”的江湖,折射著中國傳統社會的明暗兩面:除了煙波浩渺的好水色值得我們凝望,還需要我們深入省思往昔江湖之間的恣縱、快意與罪惡。

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