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                        當前位置:悠悠千古事 > 野史秘聞 > 黃河決堤,不支持賑災的是忠臣?怎么回事?

                        黃河決堤,不支持賑災的是忠臣?怎么回事?

                        發布時間:2017-07-25  來源:悠悠千古事 點擊次數:

                          元朝是由蒙古的游牧民族在華夏大地建立的第一個也是最后一個中原王朝。雖然短命,只有98年,但是元帝國強大的軍事力量是中國五千年歷史中任何一個朝代都無法與之比擬的。這個在馬背上征服了漢人王朝的民族,似乎下馬以后,還是只知道喝著馬奶酒,吃著烤羊肉,睡著蒙古包,毫無漢人經世御世的統治權術。他們不把漢人的土地當做維護帝國統治的堡壘,而是當做和蒙古大草原一樣可以隨意縱橫馳騁的“牧場”。他們不把漢族的人民當做自己帝國的公民,而是當做可以為蒙古貴族放馬牧羊,隨意驅使的奴隸。這樣的帝國在瀕臨毀滅時,往往只需要一絲點燃燎原的火花。

                          其實,早在朱元璋起義之前,元朝時期的一場黃河泛濫,就已經注定了,這個在軍事方面無敵于世界的帝國,遲早會被淹沒在一片驚濤駭浪之中。

                          黃河決堤,元朝政府該不該救?

                          公元1344,元朝在位的皇帝是元順帝烏哈噶圖汗,丞相是中國歷史上一位非常有名的丞相,脫脫。全名叫脫脫帖木兒。這一年,發生了一件在蒙古帝國內部看起來不算什么事的一件事黃河決堤了。

                          該年的3月份,黃河泛濫成災,似乎在對著元帝國做最后的咆哮。然而決堤傾泄的滔天巨浪并沒有淹到蒙古帝國的皇親貴胄,而是淹死了黃河以南的中下游地區數十萬百姓,中原地區數百萬畝良田毀于一旦,上百萬人的房屋被大水沖毀,成了流離失所的饑民。

                          那么問題來了,面對此等嚴重影響上百萬人的自然災害,元朝政府,大元的皇帝烏哈噶圖汗,該不該下令治理黃河賑濟災民呢?

                          丞相脫脫的建議是,救,必須要救!不但要撥糧賑災,還要從國庫撥大量餉銀治理黃河,重建河堤,幫助百姓恢復農田,恢復生產。

                          脫脫的思想無疑是漢化的。他雖然是蒙古人,但是卻飽受漢族文化的熏陶,尤其是儒家的治國理念。他認為,中原地區無家可歸的饑民都是帝國的百姓,國家有權利也有義務去幫助他們,這是一個政府在任何時期,任何朝代都必須完成的責任。而且,元帝國內部的蒙古王公貴胄,也大都贊成應該撥款去救。

                          但是,這個時候卻出現了在中國歷史上很反常荒誕,或者說非常無法理解的現象。那就是,在元朝朝廷中由漢人文官組成的一派,堅決反對救災。認為面對此等情況,應該舍之,棄之,放任不管即可。是不是離奇的不靠譜?

                          那么這些漢人文官集團,他們為什么堅決反對治河賑災呢?同樣身為漢人,他們真的不在乎漢人老百姓的死活嗎?他們是一群不折不扣的小人奸臣嗎?

                          不是如此,根本不是這樣的。他們非但不是奸臣小人,反而是一群有著大智慧,洞悉元朝政治,有著深遠眼光的忠臣。是一群憐惜百姓,不忍心讓老百姓再受更多苦的好官。相反,除了脫脫以外,那些高喊著治河賑災的部分王公貴族,卻是元朝不恤人民的腐敗蛀蟲,真正的奸臣。

                          不支持賑災的是忠臣,支持賑災的反而是奸臣。這,到底是為什么呢?

                          經過大元朝廷的一番激烈爭辯,最后,元順帝烏哈噶圖汗決定,政府賑災治河。并且任命脫脫為中書省右丞相,全權負責治河賑災一事。

                          治河賑災,離不開最基本的三樣事物,就是:錢、糧、人。錢和糧,當然由元朝政府來出。人,當然大部分都是受災地區的漢人百姓,也會有少部分的蒙古族平民。

                          元朝存在等級森嚴的四等人制度,即把元帝國統治境內的臣民分為四等,即蒙古人、色目人、漢人、南人。漢人和南人都是華夏漢族人民,只不過漢人是黃河流域的北方漢人,南人是長江以南的南宋遺民。蒙古的法律規定,禁止漢人打獵、學習拳擊武術、持有兵器、數家才可共用一把菜刀。還禁止漢人集會拜神、趕集趕場作買賣、夜間走路。漢人殺蒙古人的償命,殺色目人的罰黃金四十。而色目人和蒙古人殺死一個漢人,只要繳一頭毛驢的價錢。漢人如當兵則不許充宿衛,如當官也往往只能做副貳。 遇到征伐戰爭,漢人差別待遇較平時更甚。像1286年,為了進攻安南,征用全國馬匹,色目人三匹馬中只征兩匹;而漢人的馬和青年壯丁,無論多少,全部征收。

                          那么在治河用人當中,勞動力和勞動量的劃分,賑災物資的分配,勞動報酬的待遇,漢人和色目人和蒙古人,自然也就不言而喻了。

                          不過,在漢人習以為常的高壓統治下,這些事情,還不能算是最過分的。那最過分的事情,還在后面,成為了壓死千千萬萬漢族百姓的最后一根稻草。

                          脫脫滿心歡喜地拿到了賑災治河的餉銀。他在制定了一系列治河方案之后,把餉銀交給了中書省的官員。

                          中書省的官員拿到銀子后,為了謀求更好的地位,便從賑災的餉銀里拿出了一部分,送給了蒙古的皇親貴胄。繼而中書省把餉銀分發到下級各省。各個省級的官員又從中拿了一些,繼而分發到各鄉郡縣。各鄉郡縣的官員又從中拿了一些,等到調配人員,籌備治河工具,準備糧食,準備船只的時候,這些治河的餉銀就被一級一級瓜分的連渣都不剩了。

                          但是,上級下了命令,河不能不治啊。可是怎么治?錢都被瓜分的一毛不剩了,連一把挖河的鐵鍬都買不起了。怎么辦呢?于是這些當地的官員,就開始向這些原本就失去土地,失去親人,失去家園的老百征調。老百姓不但要出力,還要出錢。那么這就意味著,治理黃河,變成了一句空談。由治河賑災,變成了搜刮難民民脂民膏的大洗劫!而那些道貌岸然的地方官員,一面寫著歌功頌德的話,一面虛報著治河的功績。高高在上的大元皇帝由于不知道民間是一副怎樣的慘像,還陶醉在自己的英明決策之中。

                          這就是元朝內部漢人文官集團極力反對治河的原因。他們太了解元朝的官員系統了,所謂治河,一切都站在最高尚的出發點,但當真真落實到老百姓身上時,它所帶來的巨大災難,要遠遠超于不治河不知多少倍......

                          石人一只眼,挑動黃河天下反

                          1344年到1350年這6年間,中原地區的人民,生活在活生生的地獄之中。他們的家園被黃河沖毀,無數人妻離子散,餓殍遍野。當地的官員借治河之名,更是毫無限制地壓榨他們。他們不但要毫無回報地修河,任勞任怨地被役使,還要承擔比以往更為苛刻的賦稅。沉重的勞動下,他們吃的是連糟糠都不如的食物。每天因饑餓,疾病而死亡的人數,要遠遠超過被大水淹死的人數。這里面,有一個叫朱重八的年輕男孩。治理黃河以后,四月初六朱重八的父親餓死,初九大哥餓死,十二日,大哥長子餓死、二十二日,母親餓死。這簡直是世界上最悲慘最恐怖的日記!

                          有一天,在黃河的白茅堤決口,一個叫韓山童的貧農和幾百名工友正在疏通渠道。他們挖著挖著,突然挖到了一個一只眼的石人。而當時在民間正流傳著一句謠諺:“莫道石人一只眼,挑動黃河天下反。”人們以為石人現世,莫不是應驗?

                          公元1351年5月,韓山童、劉福通在永年白鹿莊聚眾三千人,殺白馬、黑牛立盟起義,以紅巾為號,稱“紅巾軍”,擁韓山童為明王。揭開了反抗元朝暴政的第一竿。此后,無數華夏大地的人民,投入了反抗異族暴虐統治的戰爭之中。

                          幾十年后,朱元璋滅了元朝,一統中國。可誰又能預料到,幾十年前的一場大水,就已經為這個龐大的帝國埋下了滅亡的種子呢?

                          以上就是關于“黃河決堤,不支持賑災的是忠臣?怎么回事?”的故事,喜歡的朋友請繼續關注悠悠千古事,歡迎留言評論。

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